Friday 10 January 2020

Secondary Lung Cancer: What You Need To Know?

Lungs are a pair of spongy, air-filled organs specially designed to inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide to keep the body alive and healthy. Any infection or disease in the lungs can prevent it from working properly. 
 Lung cancer

Anyone can get Lung cancer. Lung cancer is developed due to the mutation of cells in the lungs due to various factors such as smoking, high levels of pollution, radiation, and asbestos exposure. 
Lung cancer can develop in two ways. One, cancer that starts in the lung, known as primary lung cancer. Second is cancer that develops elsewhere in the body and spread to the lungs. This is called secondary or metastatic lung cancer. 

What Is Secondary Lung Cancer
Cancer is the rapid and uncontrolled growth or mutation of the cells. These cells can divide and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system of the body. If these cells build up to form another tumor somewhere else in your body, it causes secondary cancer or metastases. Similarly, cancer that spreads to your lung from somewhere else in your body is called secondary lung cancer. Cancers that are more likely to spread to the lungs are:
  • Large bowel (colon and rectum)
  • Breast 
  • Bladder 
  • Testicle 
  • Stomach 
  • Gullet (esophagus)
  • Kidney (renal)
  • Malignant melanoma(a type of skin cancer)
  • Sarcomas (a type of cancer of the cells of the soft tissue of the body) 
The symptoms of a secondary lung cancer 
  • A cough that doesn't clear up
  • Breathlessness coughing up blood-stained phlegm
  • Persistent pain or discomfort in the chest.
  • A build-up of fluid in the pleura 
Many of these symptoms are similar to those of primary lung cancer. Conditions other than cancer, such as a chest infection, can also show these symptoms. 

Sometimes, secondaries or metastases are diagnosed even before primary cancer has been diagnosed. It will be challenging to find primary cancer. Different tests are then performed to find the exact location where cancer started. This type of cancer is known as 'unknown primary.'

Most often, secondary lung cancer is difficult to cure. However, treatments are given to control cancer and to improve your quality of life. Treatments include:
  • Chemotherapy: Uses drugs and shots to shrink or slow down your cancer. 
  • Radiotherapy: Uses high-energy rays directly at the tumor to kill or shrink the cancer cells. 
  • Biological therapy: Uses your body's immune system to treat cancer.

 Lung Cancer

Each treatment option has its possible side effects, which can be managed fairly well. However, it is essential to understand all of the possibilities when you examine your treatment options. Take your concerns to expert doctors and discuss various options to manage your disease.

Saturday 23 November 2019

Prosthesis For Cancer Survivors

Cancer not only affects individuals physically but also even disturbs them mentally and emotionally. It requires immense will power to fight the disease and get rid of cancer affected part during the surgery. Even though the surgery removes the disease, the individual's self-esteem will be reduced and make him/her feel incomplete due to the missing body part. But the advancement in the field of medical science and technology has provided the solution to the problem mentioned above in the form of prosthesis.
The prosthesis is an artificial substitute for the missing body parts. It is designed to replace the missing part of the body and help individuals to look natural as tough the body part has never be removed and help them function as normally as possible.

They are a different type of prosthesis available for cancer survivors based on the body part removed, such as breast, leg, arms, testicles, and penile implants. The prosthesis can either be implanted during the surgery or worn externally without the surgery based on the patient's requirement and condition.

The different kinds of prosthesis available are:

Breast prosthesis comes in a variety of shapes, sizes, and forms designed to suit the person's skin tone. The material used is designed to mimic the natural breast to the extent possible. There are different kinds of prostheses available such as full, partial, shell, and stick on prosthesis. The temporary external prosthesis is also available in the wearable form that can be fitted in the mastectomy bras. It is suggested to choose the breast prosthesis based on the lifestyle and clothing styles of the person. It is essential to learn how to maintain the breast prosthesis and clean them regularly.

The artificial limb provides the cancer survivors the confidence to be independent and manage their daily activities by improving their mobility. Even though the prosthetic leg will not suit everyone, it is better to discuss with the treating surgeon the pros and cons. Usually, a temporary prosthesis will be provided during the first surgery. Only after proper rehabilitation and physical therapy session that strengthen the limb and help individuals walk with the prosthetic leg the permanent one will be fitted.

Based on the individual's requirement and doctor's suggestion, testicular implants are placed inside the scrotum by surgery. Penile implants are placed so that the individual's sexual life is not hampered because of cancer. These are placed usually 6-12 months after the cancer surgery. The type of implant depends on the individual requirement and medical condition.


At Guru Hospital, we understand that every cancer survivor has the right to feel beautiful and lead a normal life after battling the disease. Hence our doctors will try to discuss with each patient the prosthesis options available for them before the surgery and what suits them the best out of the permanent and temporary prosthesis.

Reviewed By : Dr S G Balamurugan
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Monday 23 September 2019

Importance Of Early Breast Cancer Screening and Self-Examination.

Breast cancer being leading cancer among females needs early detection and treatment to avoid the fatality caused by it. Breast cancer screening is one of the procedures done for the identification of breast cancer symptoms. Early detection can help you with better treatment options and better chances for survival. Regular screening for breast cancer is requisite because in most women it shows no symptoms. If it is left unnoticed it can spread to other parts and lead to many complications.

Your breasts change as you go through different stages of your life. It's important to learn what is normal for your breasts. This is called breast self-awareness. The key to breast self-awareness is knowing how your breasts normally look and feel. Self-examination helps you to notice any changes that are threatening to your health and helps to treat them early.

 Steps To Self Examine Your Breast.

  • Look at yourself in the mirror with your shoulders straight and the arms on your hips.
  • Look for any signs of wrinkles or folds, and check if the breasts are in the normal shape, size, and colour.
  • Check if your nipples are inverted or normal
  • Lift your breast to see if the ridges are symmetrical.
  • Check for any rashes, redness, and swelling.
  • Check if there is any lump or cyst growing.
  • Now raise your arms and look for the above-mentioned changes.
  • Also, check whether any fluid is coming out of the nipples.
  • Feel your breast while lying down.
  • Move your fingers while you are taking the shower.
If any of the above-mentioned signs or symptoms are detected, you should immediately consult a doctor. Women must start speaking to their doctor about breast cancer screening from the age of 40 years. It is suggested that women with an average risk should have a mammogram every 2 years from the age of 50–74 years.

Even though breast cancer screening cannot avert breast cancer, it can guide to detect breast cancer early, when it is easier to treat. Discuss with our cancer specialist at Guru  Cancer Center Madurai about which breast cancer screening tests are right for you, and when you should have them.

Reviewed By : Dr S G Balamurugan
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Friday 29 March 2019

Stages Of Breast Cancer And Disease Progression

Breast cancer is the most common type of female cancer. This type of cancer can occur both in men and female but more likely to occur in woman. Breast cancer is nothing but cancer that are formed in breasts. Breast cancer are mainly divided into two categories : Invasive and non invasive. While invasive cancer is a type of cancer which spread from breast ducts or glands to other parts, non-invasive cancer are types which do not spread from the original tissue.

breast cancer treatment in tamil nadu

Stages of breast cancer :

Breast cancer is mainly divided into five stages:
  •  stage 0 
  •  stage 1
  •  stage 2
  •  stage 3
  •  stage 4
Stage 0 : 
This stage describes that the growth of cancer cells is not yet invasive in nature. The cancerous cells are found in the lining of the breast duct and are confined to those areas alone. The malignant cancer cells have not attacked the surrounding area or spread beyond. 

Stage 1 : 
 This stage marks the beginning of invasive cancer cells. This stage is further subdivided into 2.
In stage IA the invasive breast cancer cells measure up to 2 cm and the cancer cells have not spread outside the breast nor are lymph nodes involved.

In stage IB  :
a) The occurrence of tumour cells are absent in breasts but a lump of cancer cells not larger than 0.2 mm but nor larger than 2 mm are present in lymph nodes. 
b) Tumour is present in the breasts that are no larger than 2 cm along with cancer cells larger than 0.2mm but not larger than 2 mm in the lymph nodes. 

Stage 2 :
This stage is again subdivided into IIA and IIB.

In stage IIA
a,) Tumor is found in lymph nodes but is absent in breast.
b) Tumor which is almost 2cm or smaller has infected axillary lymph nodes
c) The tumour is which is larger than 2 cm but not larger than 5 cm that has not spread to axillary lymph nodes

In stage IIB 
a) Tumor larger than 2 cm but not larger than 5 cm, a lump of of cancer cells larger than 0.2 mm but not larger than 2 mm infects the lymph nodes.
b) Tumor cells are found in lymph nodes, they are larger than 2 cm but not larger than 5 cm.
c) Tumor has not spread to lymph nodes and is more than 5 cm in length.

Stage 3 :

This stage is subdivided into IIIA, IIIB and IIIC
In stage IIIA  

a) Tumor is found in lymph nodes but is absent in breasts.
b) Breast cancer cells larger than 0.2mm but not larger than 2mm, are found in lymph nodes. Tumors are more than 5 cm in length
c) Cancer cells are larger than 5 cm and are spread to axillary lymph nodes

In Stage IIIB 

a) Size of tumor can vary and it has spread to chest wall and skin of breasts
b) Cancer cells are likely to have spread to lymph nodes

In stage IIIC

a) There are no cancer cells in breasts. 
b) Cancer has spread to lymph nodes

Stage 4:
This stage is called advanced or metastatic stage. In this stage, cancer has become invasive and it has spread beyond the breast and to other organs such as lungs, liver, lymph nodes, brain, skin, and bones.

Breast cancer can be dangerous. There are several breast cancer treatment hospitals in India. Guru Cancer Treatment Center, is one of the best breast cancer treatment hospitals in Madurai. Right knowledge about the diseases helps in early detection of the disease. Breast exam, mammogram, breast ultrasound, biopsy, MRI are few of the breast cancer diagnosis methods. If you are hunting for the best breast cancer diagnosis in Madurai or for Mammography in Tamil Nadu, Guru hospital is the right place. The specialization and expertise of our doctors make us the best breast cancer treatment in Tamil Nadu.

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Tuesday 18 December 2018

Cervical Cancer and its risk factors

Cancer that appears and spreads from the lower part of the uterus, i.e, from the cervix is popularly known as cervical cancer. Cervical cancers mostly start from the squamous cells. HPV or human papillomavirus is one of the major reasons behind cervical cancer. It is a group of 150 viruses and few of it may cause the growth of warts or papillomas. 

HPV virus and the symptoms of cervical cancer

This particular virus can spread from one person to the other through every kind of sexual activity since the virus transfers from the skin to skin contact. Mostly the HPV virus affects the skin area and not the internal organs.
The symptoms of cervical cancer may include uncertain bleeding after intercourse and menopause. Foul smelling vaginal watery discharge in between the periods is commonly found in women.

What are the risk factors for cervical cancer?

A risk factor is something that changes the chances of a particular disease. Following are the risk factors for cervical cancer:
  • Weak immunity system- The HIV virus reduces the human immunity system. So in women with HIV, the chances of developing cervical cancer are the highest. Apart from HIV drugs can also affect the immunity system. So women who take drugs and alcohols have a greater tendency to grow cancer cells.
  • Smoking- The tobacco by-products damage the DNA of the cervix cells, thereby it leads to cervical cancer.
  • Obesity- Women with obesity can develop adenocarcinoma in the cervix. This leads to the formation of cancer cells.
  • It has been found that women with multiple full-time pregnancies have a higher risk of developing cervical cancer.
  • The sexual habits of a woman can increase the risk factor of cervical cancer. 

Where should you go for treatment?

Guru Cancer Treatment Center Madurai is one such destination that offers the best treatment for cervical cancer in India. Our team is here to give you every possible help to fight cancer and lead a happy life in future. Starting from our doctors to the infrastructure of the hospital, this is the place where you will get top class treatment options and services. Here the surgeons conduct the latest technology-assisted procedures to treat cancer. For further information contact us now!

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Monday 10 December 2018

How Can Hodgkin Lymphoma(Cancer Of Lymphatic System) Be Treated?

Hodgkin lymphoma is a particular kind of cancer that is caused due to malfunctioning of lymphocytes also known as white blood cells. These white blood cells help to fight against different types of infections. The immunity system gets hampered drastically if the blood cells stop working. So now let's focus on how cancer affects our body. The lymphoma cells start growing abnormally in the lymph nodes that appear in the upper parts of the body like neck, armpits or chest. If not treated in the right stage it can spread through the lymph system towards the liver, bone marrow and lungs. 


Symptoms of lymphoma that are found in most cases

  • Painless swelling lymph nodes near the chest, neck, armpits and abdomen.
  • Uncertain fever.
  • A certain feeling of fullness in the abdomen area.
  • Fatigue.
  • Trouble while coughing or breathing.
  • Unexplained, weight-loss and night sweats.
  • Unexplained vomiting or digestion problem.
Sometimes people also feel a pain in the lymph nodes while consuming alcohol. If you find any of these unexplained symptoms, immediately consult a doctor!

What diagnosis process is followed?

In the very first place tests like MRI, PET, ultrasound, X-Ray and CT scan are conducted to locate the lump. Next, a bone marrow test is conducted to check the presence of cancer cells.


Treatment options available at Guru Hospitals

Guru Hospital is such a destination where you will get every possible suggestion related to cancer. Since years it has been providing the best treatment for lymphoma in India. Apart from the common surgical process chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, targeted therapies and immunotherapy are conducted by our experts to stop the spreading of the cancer cells and treat them completely.

A multi-speciality hospital located in Madurai brings you world-class cancer treatment that will help you to lead a better life after the treatment. Generally, chemotherapies are quite hectic, but our team makes no stone unturned to provide every possible comfort to our patients. 

To know more about Hodgkin lymphoma treatment, contact us now!

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Thursday 30 August 2018

Different Treatment Options For Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is one of the commonest cancers and is also the leading contributor to cancer-related mortality, resulting in 1.40 million cancer deaths per year globally. It accounts for 15 per cent of all new cancer cases and 20 per cent of all cancer-related deaths worldwide. In India, lung cancer constitutes 10 per cent of all cancer related deaths in both sexes and 7 per cent of all new cancer cases.

What are the treatment options for lung cancer?

Guru Hospital provides different treatment options for lung cancer. It includes surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, cryotherapy, and photodynamic therapy.



Surgical treatment for Lung cancer is an option for patients depending on the type, stage and location of their cancer as well as other medical conditions. The surgery for lung cancer will take away the tumour together with some nearby lung tissues. When the cancer is localized and unlikely to have spread, then removing the tumour with lung cancer surgery is considered the best option. This includes carcinoid tumours and early stage non-small cell lung cancers. 


Photodynamic therapy:

Photodynamic therapy (also called PDT or light activating treatment) is a bronchoscopy procedure and uses a photosensitizer and laser irradiation to produce reactive oxygen in cells to destroy cancer cells and treat symptomatic tissues. Photodynamic therapy is a good option for treating bronchoscopically visible lung cancers that haven't spread beyond the lungs. As an endobronchial therapy, Photodynamic therapy is used to treat roentgenographically occult, endobronchial, or synchronous primary carcinomas.



Also called Cryosurgery. This is a technique, that kills cancer cells by freezing them. In this technique extreme cold is produced by liquid nitrogen (or argon gas).  Hollow steel probes (Cryoprobes) are placed inside the region affected by cancer. Through the probes, liquid nitrogen is then circulated which freezes the cancer cells, creating a ball of ice crystals around the probe. Finally, heated nitrogen is circulated through the probes once adequate ice crystals are formed. After the procedure, the frozen tissue thaws, dissolves and either it forms a scab (for external tumours) or it is naturally absorbed by the body (for internal tumours). Cryosurgery is minimally invasive so pain, bleeding, and other complications of surgery are minimized. Cryosurgery is also less expensive than other treatments and requires a shorter hospital stay and shorter recovery time.


Radiation therapy or radiotherapy:

Radiotherapy treatment delivers high-energy x-rays that can annihilate rapidly dividing cancer cells. In addition to destroying the tumour cells, radiotherapy can help to relieve some of the symptoms the tumour causes such as shortness of breath. Radiotherapy is used alone or combined with chemotherapy depending on the condition of patients. 



This involves usage of cytotoxic (anti-cancer) drugs that are toxic to cancer cells. This is used to slow or stop the growth of rapidly dividing cancer cells in the body. It is considered as primary treatment option to destroy or shrink the tumor before starting another treatment.

Guru Multispecialty Hospital, Madurai is a multispecialty hospital which has an all-inclusive cancer care center with state-of-the-art technologies. This is one of the leading centres for Lung cancer cure therapy in Tamil Nadu – with an exceptional commitment to provide outstanding cancer care to everyone in need. They are offering the best lung cancer treatment in India for all types of lung cancers with highly qualified doctors efficient in Lung cancer diagnosis and treatment. In addition to being the largest cancer center in Tamil Nadu, Guru Hospital also functions as a top-notch research hub and training centre in oncology.
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